In a wider framework, the countries of the region Africa-Carribbean-Pacific (ACP) had to negotiate a new trade agreement with the European Union, which wanted to revise the trade preferences granted to the ACP countries in order to align them with the rules of the WTO. President Guebuza, elected in 2004, as well as the main donors of aid, was convinced that after 20 years of structural adjustment and opening to foreign industrial investments, priority had to be given to activities and job creation in the rural environment. Among the teenagers interviewed, about 25% of the females have been confronted with food insecurity, compared with 16% of the males. The elevation of sea level could also affect coastal countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, and Gambia; Stefan Cramer, of the Heinrich Boll Foundation, who attended the conference in Accra, underlined the impact that would be felt particularly in the deltas, where populations are dense. In Wajir, the price of rice (the staple food of the local population) rose from 60 to 80 shillings (€0.64) per kilogram in 3 months, while the price of sugar doubled. In the United States currently, 1 in 9 people struggle with hunger. Drought-Tolerant Maize. Time. With an economic growth of about 7% in 2010, Mozambique seemed to be making good progress towards recovery from a civil war that led to about 1 million deaths between 1976 and 1992. The Group’s report forecast a 5% to 8% extension of arid and semi-arid lands from now to 2080, an increase in the number of people suffering from lack of water from now to 2020, and worsening difficulties for agriculture that could halve agricultural production in some countries [17]. volume 1, Article number: 2 (2012) Can Africa cope with global climate change using the means existing under the Kyoto Protocol? Both areas are controlled by Shebab insurgents. For instance, the pledges made in L’Aquila (Italy) in 2008 are far from becoming a reality. Le Monde Economie. The FAO warned that Mozambique, Uganda, Mali, Niger, and Somalia were extremely vulnerable to instability because of rising prices, along with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in Asia, and Haiti, Guatemala, Bolivia, and Honduras in Latin America. Their claims are directed to the World Trade Organization (WTO) with a view to changing the rules of world trade, and also to encourage governments to adopt agricultural policies that support local producers. Incorporated as a not-for-profit foundation in 1971, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Forum is tied to no political, partisan or national interests. The food crisis has produced a variety of proposed solutions. In 2011, about 3,000 farmers were selling their production to local brewers. A report released by Amnesty International earlier this year noted that rife insecurity, food insecurity and more than 7.5 million people in need of humanitarian assistance had left the region in crisis. But the latter cannot provide their support over more than three or four years. 2010, Lemaître F: Une crise alimentaire majeure se profile. If output falls below demand, prices will tend to rise, even if 'excess’ calories are being produced. The 77 ACP countries, three-quarters of which are African countries, were concerned that such revision may change the rules of the game affording them the advantages indicated in the Lome and Cotonou agreements and concerning the export of their agricultural products: bananas, sugar, or cotton. There are ways and means to boost yields of the main crops; despite the constraints of land and water, fertilizers and pesticides are available and although the concerns of the critics of modern agriculture may be understandable, the reaction against intensive farming is not always justified. Food insecurity is one way we can measure and assess the risk of hunger. 'Consecutive droughts have affected the country in the last few years, while the ongoing conflict has made it extremely difficult for agencies to operate and access communities in the south of the country,’ it added. Government ownership is critical to sustaining development investments and to ensuring a sound policy environment for private-sector engagement. In 2010, and for the second year in sequence, rainfall was below 350 mm, and the rainy period that generally starts at the beginning of November had not yet started by the end of December. 2010, 4-, Sasson A: Agricultural biotechnology applications in Africa. All of these commitments are far from becoming a reality. Under the threat of starvation, the populations living in the deep south of Madagascar (Malagasy) are adopting survival strategies, such as eating seeds to be sown for the following harvests and therefore reducing the likelihood of any meaningful crops. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. If you do not produce food in the first place, there is nothing to protect.". On September 14, 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) published its estimates concerning the number of people suffering from hunger in 2010: 925 million. Le Monde. But that is still less than half as much as the rise in food production in the 44 years from 1962 to 2006. Finally, the government and trade unions had signed an agreement to raise by 50% the fare of collective minibuses [15]. ACDIC also helps define a national agricultural policy. This week, Zimbabwe announced that about 4 million people need food handouts because of drought, while UNICEF said it was looking for at least $21 million to avert malnutrition in the southern African nation. But improved seeds are just one element of crop systems. Some production factors can be increased, for example ploughing out more land (like the cerrados in Brazil), improving the access to scientific and technological progress (for instance, agrobiotechnology), more research and development. In 2007, the United Nations predicted that 'zones struck by drought in sub-Saharan Africa might increase from 60 million to 90 million hectares from now to 2060…’ and that 'the number of people suffering from malnutrition might increase up to 600 million from now to 2080’. In fact, less than half of the US$1.6 million (€1.14 billion) needed for the assistance programme to be carried out in that region had been collected. As the crisis enters its tenth year, extremist violence is spreading, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) is growing, and food insecurity is affecting more people than ever before. Food insecurity in Nigeria is continuously being ... Get development's most important headlines in your inbox every day. Regarding the 'mechanism of clean development’, which allows for the funding of technology projects aimed at decreasing the emissions of greenhouse-effect gases, it is spreading slowly on the continent. 2010, 1: 4-, Van Eeckhout L: Alerte sur un risque de crise alimentaire. 1 According to the 2004 report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on the state of food insecurity in the world, more than 814 million people in developing countries are undernourished. Others consider that such privatization would benefit only the social and economic leadership, who could purchase the land; banks would not like to have lands as a guarantee and become landlords in case the owner went bankrupt. Comprehensive and complementary approaches. The global population is predicted to grow by 2 billion by 2050 and with more than half of that growth coming from Sub-Saharan Africa, addressing food insecurity has become a matter of urgency. The aim is to enable farmers to meet their own needs and to sell their surplus on the market. Le Monde. The trend could be reversed, according to Oxfam, if governments improved regulation and focused on the plight of small farmers. One of the Fund’s priorities is to allocate more money to short-cycle crops such as vegetables, maize, and rice, as well as to poultry and swine husbandry. Food insecurity describes a household’s inability to provide enough food for every person to live an active, healthy life. In 2007–2008, rocketing food prices were the most obvious symptoms of the global food crisis. 2011, Lacey M: High food prices incite rising anger. In Somalia, the cost of sorghum, the local staple, had risen 240% since October 2010. The latest measures were to remain in force until the end of 2010. Privacy According to Brice Lalonde, the French ambassador for the negotiations on climate change, the inclusion of forests in these negotiations depends on the accuracy of measurement of their actual acreage and of their emissions. Le Monde Economie. It had more to do with a sharp fall in the metical, Mozambique’s currency (-43% compared with South Africa’s rand, between January and September 2010), coupled with a poor harvest in the south of the country in 2010 due to drought. Since then, the irrigated area per person has been shrinking by 1% a year [12]. This is one of the numerous disparities between the sexes revealed by UNICEF, published on February 25, 2011 and devoted to teenagers [8]. Le Monde. There is not in Africa a unique solution such as the one based on rice because African staple foods are different, and technologies should be adapted to a distinct context. 2008. In 2009 and 2010, 80% of the maize harvest had been destroyed. Europeans stated that they were willing to maintain some preferential tariffs if they had an equivalent access to the ACP countries’ markets; in this case, the exports were mainly industrial goods and services. It was thanks to the participation of the consumers in the battle against imported frozen chicken that the latter was won [33]. Regarding Africa, if a mechanism were designed to avoid deforestation, the countries of the Congo basin would benefit [17]. There are over 300,000 industrial megafarms and 1 billion family farms. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Le Monde. For the actors in this group (food companies, crop breeders, and international development agencies) the green revolution of the 1960s was a stunning success and needs to be followed by a second one [9]. The internal market should reach 2 billion people, while for the producers of goods and services, there are great advantages to draw from converting 250 million underfed persons into consumers with an effective purchasing power. Despite an annual GDP growth of between 8% and 13% over 10 years (except in 2000 because of catastrophic floods), Mozambique remains one of the poorest countries of the world, with 54% of its population, mainly rural, living on less than US$1 per day. The regulation of the markets of agricultural commodities was also a key subject of the G20 meeting organized by France in Paris in February 2011 [1]. Here are three of the most impactful R&D successes from the past few years that are helping smallholder farmers cope with climate change and bolster food security: 1. Edited by: Taieb M, Zakri AH. Such initiatives are contrary to free trade promoted by the WTO, which aims to help African countries to export on world markets. 2011, no. : Que faire contre la faim?. UNICEF has outlined a three-pronged approach responding to the food crises in Africa: to aid 13.1 million children suffering from famine conditions in these four countries, to treat 1 million children under the age of 5 for serious acute malnutrition, and to raise $712 million in 2017 to fund these projects. The U.N. Global food supply is not even. If there is a food problem, it does not look like a technical or biological one.’ Therefore, why worry about producing more food? In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG) number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Every one of these families will have a house and a 2-hectare area of farmland. And on February 4, 2011, the FAO’s Director-General, Jacques Diouf, and the French agriculture minister, Bruno Le Maire, warned during a press conference against 'a real risk of a global food crisis’. Le Monde. Their production costs are higher than for imported food, whose dumping prices discourage them from producing more [24]. The increase in the price of bread was not the only reason for rioting: the price of water rose 12% and that of electricity 13% just before the food riots, and a few months before the events the price of bread had been increased in a similar way. So, according to the FAO, producing enough food to feed the world in the next four decades should be easier than in the previous four. In 2006, ACDIC launched a campaign on food sovereignty and collected the written support of citizens for subsidies to farmers. 12. The least food-secure countries include The Central African Republic, Chad, Yemen, and Madagascar. One of the successes of the Fund, with a budget of €6.7 million in 2011 (thus allowing the support of hundreds of projects), has been to involve banks that facilitate loans to farmers, especially to those who wanted to buy heavy equipment [30]. Drought is not exceptional in the Horn of Africa, but 2011 was different: recurrent droughts were more frequent since the 2009 episode and plant regrowth was almost impossible. They do not have enough money, or the resources to grow food, and regularly go for more than a day without food. Robert Delve is a technical adviser with the International Fund for Agricultural Development. The vaccination rate was 41% in the south of the country, compared with 88% (average) in the rest of the country. 2011, Degbe E: Les filles moins bien loties en cas de crise alimentaire. The country’s strategy is to support producers’ organizations, to enable landlocked production areas to have an easier access to markets, to organize commercialization networks and to set up infrastructures for transforming agricultural production, storing and conserving agrifood products. Another solution to deforestation carried out to clear out land for agriculture is to support agricultural intensification through the rational distribution of fertilizers; if yields of food crops are increased, farmers will not clear the forests to extend farmland acreage. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in June 2011. 2009, Rabat, Morocco: Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Cypel S: La sécurité alimentaire, l’autre chantier de Bill Gates. Le Monde. Tomato farmer Grace Chikwanha says besides pests, her crop perishes because she fails to secure timely transport. Springer Nature. In Senegal, in March 2008, police in riot gear used tear gas and beat people protesting against high food prices and later raided a television station that broadcast images of the event [10, 11]. Parts of Kenya had a bumper harvest, leaving non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to wonder why the government’s strategic grain reserves were so low. 11, 2016, no. Also, the use of fertilizer is crucial: Africa uses, on average, 8 kg of fertilizer per hectare, which is very little; if this amount could be increased to 30 kg, this would change the face of agriculture’ [28]. Perhaps the trendiest and most innovative approach to solving food insecurity is agrihoods. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. But good practices have to spread throughout the continent, while at the same time social and economic measures, as well as political will, are indispensable ingredients of Africa’s green revolution. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world, where more than 50% of the population was less than 18 years old in 2009 and where 85% of teenagers were living in rural areas. Western Africa led the continent in reducing the number of undernourished people since the early 1990s. In Yemen, food riots turned deadly, taking at least a dozen lives [10, 12]. Maize is one of the most important crops in Africa, supporting the sustenance and livelihoods of over 300 million people. Of these countries, one out of three is confronted with political problems, that is civil war and/or general insecurity [20, 21]. "Unfortunately, if you look at who funds IFAD, it is donor countries, member countries of IFAD of the United Nations. Download the Brief The Issue The situation in the Sahel has never been more dire. Many were those who underlined the lack of investment and long-term planning by the Kenyan government for the northeast of the country. The WFP, which wished to raise the number of receivers of urgent assistance from 80,000 to 200,000, was seeking funds. As stated by Jacques Chirac, the former president of France, 'I have never ceased to fight against the freezing of production in Europe and to promote agricultural development in poor countries…’. 2010, Hervieu S, Van Eeckhout L: Le sud de Madagascar est menacé par la famine. In Cameroon, for instance, rice, tomatoes, onions, and maize are imported, while they can be grown locally. Days later, in Cameroon, a taxi drivers’ strike over fuel prices became a massive protest against soaring food prices, leaving around 20 people dead, while hundreds were arrested. Therefore the risk of having idle lands would become real. The most important thing to understand about the modern food system is that it is a creation of about the last 70 years, and it is a business model. He added that the solution was to assist small farmers 'to increase their productivity, to find outlets and to adopt new agricultural techniques’. 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